Thursday, September 23, 2010


Proof of Compliance With A Standard May Establish Infringement

In a decision that will likely impact the wireless and telecom sectors for years to come, the Federal Circuit clearly held that “a district court may rely on a an industry standard in analyzing infringement.” Fujitsu Ltd. et al. v. Netgear, Inc., 2010-1045, September 20, 2010. Rather than requiring proof infringement for each individual accused product,
“if a district court construes the claims and finds that the reach of the claims includes any device that practices a standard, this can be sufficient for a finding of infringement. We agree that claims should be compared to the accused product to determine infringement. However, if an accused product operates in accordance with a standard, then comparing the claims to that standard is the same as comparing the claims to the accused product.”
In other words, the Federal Circuit held that proof a standard compliance can be sufficient circumstantial evidence to establish infringement.

To defend against an allegation of infringement based on a practicing-the-standard theory, “an accused infringer is free to either prove that the claims do not cover all implementations of the standard or to prove that it does not practice the standard.” Further, the Federal Circuit recognized “that in many instances, an industry standard does not provide the level of specificity required to establish that practicing that standard would always result in infringement.” In some cases, “the relevant section of the standard is optional, and standards compliance alone would not establish that the accused infringer chooses to implement the optional section.” In such cases, the plaintiff cannot rely on the standard alone to establish infringement.

From a plaintiff’s perspective, the cost and complexity of proving infringement when an industry standard is involved may now be greatly reduced. Rather than proving that numerous complex devices meet every element of the claim, the patent owner now must establish that the relevant portion of the standard in question (1) always infringes the claim, i.e. “a patent covers every possible implementation of a standard,”; (2) is mandatory for compliance with the standard,  and (3) the accused device is compliant with the standard. The significant advantage for the plaintiff is that elements (1) and (2) need only be proven once, rather than for each accused product. In cases like Fujitsu, which dealt with the 802.11 wireless standard and involved a large number of accused products, this results in a significantly lower burden for the plaintiff to carry.

Fujitsu reiterates that it is not enough for a plaintiff to establish that an accused device is "capable of infringement; the patent owner must show evidence of specific evidence of direct infringement."  Thus, when a feature in the standard may be switched on and off or is optional for compliance, proof of compliance with the standard is not enough.  The plaintiff must then prove that the switchable or optional feature was actually implemented and used in the accused device.

Since there are a large number of cases pending, and likely many more coming, involving industry standards featuring devices, such as cell phones, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and Bluetooth compliant devices, this will certainly be an issue presented time and time again in the foreseeable future.

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